Main and Special Rate Capital Allowances – how do you clear the pools down?

high rise building with green glass windows

When Capital Allowances are assessed on commercial property and holiday lets they will be split into 3 categories. We use specialists to make the assessments and they are able to maximise the claims. The categories are:

Annual Investment Allowance

You can only claim AIA in the period you bought the item.

The date you bought it is:

  • when you signed the contract, if payment is due within less than 4 months
  • when payment’s due, if it’s due more than 4 months later

If you buy something under a hire purchase contract you can claim for the payments you have not made yet when you start using the item. You cannot claim on the interest payments.

Since 2019 the AIA has been capped at £1m but that’s more than enough for most businesses.

AIA is not available for partnerships where one of the partners is a company or another partnership.

Main Rate and Special Rate Pools

The 3 types of pool are the:

  • main pool with a rate of 18%
  • special rate pool with a rate of 6%
  • single asset pools with a rate of 18% or 6% depending on the item

Special rate pool

You can claim a lower rate of 6% on:

  • parts of a building considered integral – known as ‘integral features’
  • items with a long life
  • thermal insulation of buildings

Integral features

Integral features are:

  • lifts, escalators and moving walkways
  • space and water heating systems
  • air-conditioning and air cooling systems
  • hot and cold water systems (but not toilet and kitchen facilities)
  • electrical systems, including lighting systems
  • external solar shading

What happens to the Pools if the Asset is disposed of?

The main and special rate pools will continue to qualify for WDAs until the business ceases, even though all the assets in the pool have been sold, transferred or scrapped. When the business ceases there will be a balancing adjustment. This will be either a balancing charge, i.e. taxable amount, if proceeds received for the assets (or their market value if they are not sold) exceed the value of the pool, or a balancing allowance, i.e. extra tax deduction, if the proceeds (or value) are less than the value of the pool. (Indicator FLM)

So you carry on taking 18% or 6% WDA until the business ceases.

If the property is being sold or has been sold and the company is to be wound up, then a balancing allowance of the CA pools can be received in the final accounting period.  Usually, there will be a value attributed to capital allowances via the s198 election in the contract.

steve@bicknells.net

How do you create a Group using Share Exchange/Swap? Why is it done?

photo of man holding pen

Share for Share exchange is often used when you are re-organising or creating a group and benefits from tax relief.

Basically if you don’t do a share exchange you would need to sell the shares at market value creating both Capital Gains and Stamp Duty costs.

In order to do a Share exchange you must have bona fide commercial reasons for doing it and it can’t be just to avoid tax. So for example you might want to create a group in order to separate trading and investment activities and enable an investment company to obtain mortgage finance (most lenders probably would not lend to a single company doing both trading and investment in the same company as it puts the investment at risk).

Why?

Here is a common scenario, a developer buys a commercial property to develop into residential and sell, but when the project completes the market conditions have changed they want to keep the residential properties and rent them out.

During the development they will have reclaimed VAT and the first grant of residential is Zero Rated, so they get full recovery. An investor would not get this.

So to avoid partial exemption for VAT its best to move to a new company and there are bona fide Commercial Reasons too as previously noted.

Although the reclassification to investment will create a profit and tax charge a group structure will provide Group SDLT relief. See these blogs for details.

What if you move a Property from Fixed Asset Investment to Trading Stock or Vice Versa? Appropriations and Reclassifaction – Steve J Bicknell Tel 01202 025252

Do you pay SDLT on Properties Transfers within a Group? – Steve J Bicknell Tel 01202 025252

How?

The process basically has 4 stages.

Stage 1 – Form the new companies

Assuming you are now creating a new Holding Company with a New Investment Company, these need to be formed first.

Stage 2 – HMRC Clearance

Its not mandatory but it is best practice How to apply for clearance or approval of a transaction from HMRC – GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)

To get clearance you need to write a letter to HMRC setting out all the facts, the group structure and the commercial reasons, typically the letter is 6 to 10 pages long.

You can request advance clearances by sending an email to reconstructions@hmrc.gov.uk. You do not need to send a paper copy.

Attachments should be no larger than 2MB. Do not send self-extracting zip files as HMRC software will block them.

If possible we would like to reply by email, but we need your permission to do so by including the following statement:

‘I confirm that our client understands and accepts the risks associated with email and that they are happy for you to send information concerning their business or personal details to us by email. I also confirm that HMRC can send emails to the following address (or addresses)….’

If you’re making the application on behalf of yourself or your company adapt this wording as necessary.

Stage 3 – The Contract

This is normally done by a solicitor.

The contract deals with the acquiring company and the shareholders of the target company under which the shares are to be acquired with the consideration being shares in the acquiring company.

Stage 4 – Stamp Duty Relief

As the acquiring company is paying consideration for the shares (the issue of its own shares), then the transaction is subject to Stamp Duty. However, relief can be claimed under s77 FA 1986 if the conditions are met and the anti-avoidance rule of s77A FA 1986 does not apply. HMRC guidance is at STSM042000 starting at STSM042410. After the conditions have been checked and a claim prepared, see “How to Claim Relief” on GOV.UK. The claim needs to be made within 30 days of the contract date and, as HMRC outline, various information will need to be attached to the e-mail claim including the stock transfer form.

steve@bicknells.net

Can I just move my Buy to Let into a partnership and then incorporate?

If you have a large portfolio (because that could be seen as business) then this might be possible but not if you only have a single property (or if its a small portfolio).

Forming a partnership has been seen as milestone on the route to incorporation, incorporation will mean that Section 24 interest restrictions don’t apply, which can save substantial amounts of tax.

Incorporation Tax Relief

The Ramsey case set out a basis for incorporation tax

EM Ramsay v HMRC [2013] UKUT 0226 (TCC)

Mrs Ramsey carried out the following activities

  1. Mr & Mrs Ramsey personally met potential tenants
  2. Mrs Ramsey check the quarterly electric bills
  3. Mrs Ramsey arranged insurance
  4. Mrs Ramsey arranged and attended to maintenance issues (drains)
  5. Mrs Ramsey and her son maintained the garages and cleared rubbish
  6. Mrs Ramsey dealt with post
  7. Mrs Ramsey dealt with fire regulation issues
  8. Mrs Ramsey arranged for a fence to be erected
  9. Mrs Ramsey created a flower bed
  10. Shrubs were pruned and leaves swept
  11. The parking area was cleared of weeds
  12. The flag stones were bleached
  13. Communal areas were vacuumed
  14. Security checks were carried out
  15. She took rubbish to tip
  16. She cleaned vacant flats
  17. she helped elderly tenants with utilities

This work equated to at least 20 hours per week and Mrs Ramsey had no other employment.

It is because she did the work herself that her property investment was considered a ‘Business’ and eligible for Incorporation Tax Relief.

SDLT

Partnerships have special rules on SDLT relating to incorporation.

The rules on SDLT for Partnerships are in the Finance Act 2003 Schedule 15 and amendments in the Finance Act 2006 Schedule 24.

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2003/14/schedule/15

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2006/25/schedule/24

It is complicated but essentially it comes down to the following formulae

MV x (100 – sum of lower proportions (SLP))%

What this means is that if the land being put into the partnership is effectively retained by the transferor-partner (or persons connected with the transferor) after the transaction, you basically end up with:

MV x (100-100) = £0

So a husband and wife partnership owning 50% each could transfer the property to a company for 50% of the shares each and in theory there would be no SDLT charge.

What’s the problem for small portfolios

Take a look this tax question of the week My VIP Tax Team question of the week: Finance Costs Restriction (cronertaxwise.com)

Two of my clients, a married couple, have jointly held residential investment property. The husband is a higher rate taxpayer and the wife is a basic rate taxpayer and they would like to change the allocation of the property income. They do not want to change their 50/50 capital interest so have decided to form a general partnership to take advantage of exception C within ITA 2007 S836 to the assumption they are beneficially entitled to the income in equal shares. Their property portfolio is mortgaged. As the husband has income from other sources, he has fully utilised relief for all finance costs attributed to him. The wife has cumulative unrelieved finance costs, due to her personal allowance mitigating her tax liability on the property income. Can those unrelieved finance costs be carried forward and relieved against tax liabilities on property income from the partnership?

Alexandra Fielding – Croner 4/5/22

There are two issues you raise which need to be addressed.

The first is the formation of a partnership to enable more of the property income to be allocated to the wife.

Although, as you say, a partnership means the assumed 50/50 income entitlement of s836 ITA 2007 does not apply, this is not the end of the matter. A non-commercial allocation of profits within a partnership is still within the settlement legislation of s624 ITTOIA 2005 and can apply to all partnerships and LLPs. This is a view confirmed by HMRC at TSEM4215.

The allocation of more of the profits to the wife without a corresponding increase in her share of partnership equity simply to avoid income tax would be caught by the settlement legislation. The exception in s626 ITTOIA 2005 for transfers between spouse/civil partners would not apply as this would be “wholly or substantially a right to income” without a corresponding transfer of partnership equity. If the couple’s particular rental properties require personal involvement of time and effort and such work is only carried out by the wife, or most of it is carried out by the wife, then it may be possible to commercially justify a greater share of the partnership profits to be allocated to the wife. How much would depend on the time spent and the nature of the work undertaken.

I would add that whether the particular rental properties constitute a “business” that meets the requirements of the Partnership Act 1890 depends on the facts involved. Although not an issue actively pursued by HMRC at the moment, there is a published view from HMRC at PM131800 which states:

The letting of jointly owned property does not normally constitute a partnership. Most cases will fall short of the degree of business organisation needed to constitute a business. The provision of significant additional services in return for payment may be an indicator of such business organisation.

The second issue relates to the unrelieved finance costs.

The rules to determine the entitlement to relief of non-deductible costs of a dwelling-related loan for an individual are contained within ITTOIA 2005 S274A and S274AA. Section 274A(3) tells us the relievable amount for a tax year is the total of the individual’s current-year restricted finance costs (if any) for that year in respect of that business and the unrelieved individual’s brought-forward restricted finance costs (if any) for that year in respect of that business.

The legislation restricts the tax reduction for finance costs so that a reduction can only be made against the income tax liability on the same property business to which the finance costs relate.

Although the properties and the individuals carrying on the letting activities will remain the same after the partnership is formed, for income tax purposes the partnership property business is a separate property business to that previously carried on by the individuals (ITTOIA 2005 S859(2)). This rule pre-dates the finance costs restriction and is covered by HMRC at PIM1030.

Therefore, unrelieved dwelling-related loan costs accumulated by the wife will be lost on the formation of the general partnership.

Whilst the wife’s only source of income is property income, she may continue to accumulate unrelieved finance costs. Your clients may want to consider allocating more of the underlying ownership of the property to the wife or transferring other income producing assets to utilise her personal allowance to maximise finance cost tax reductions.

Form 17 – Joint Ownership Proportions

For jointly owned property Form 17 and Declarations of Trust can be used to change the split of ownership.

When you make a declaration it must apply equally to ownership and income and a couple must be married or civil partners, you can’t be separated or divorced or joint tenants.

Form 17 is used to make the declaration

You can use this form to declare a beneficial interest if you hold property jointly and:

• you actually own the property in unequal shares, and

• you are entitled to the income arising in proportion to those shares, and

• you want to be taxed on that basis.

Form 17 must be submitted with in 60 days of completion, in addition a Declaration of Trust is likely to be required.

If there is a change, even a minor change, after submitting the Form 17 it will be invalid and revert to 50/50.

If the property is held in a single name it may be possible to use a declaration of trust to confirm joint beneficial interest.

Income Tax and Capital Gains Tax will be be based on the beneficial interest in the property, so if one spouse is a higher rate tax payer and the other a lower rate tax payer changing the proportion of ownership could have a significant tax advantage.

steve@bicknells.net

Can I claim a Grant?

The first GOV.UK release of the Find a Grant pilot is now open – for everyone

Now, it doesn’t have every government grant on it – yet.  We have started with 26 schemes so that we can co-create, test and develop – and keep on co-creating, testing and developing between now and March 2023. And, we are working across government to get more grants added during this pilot phase.  

But, if you like it – and it works – this time next year we will make the case, on your behalf, to have it rolled out across government.

The first GOV.UK release of the Find a Grant pilot is now open – for everyone – Government Grants Community (blog.gov.uk)

26 grants is start there will be lots more added so it worth book marking the page Home – Find a grant (find-government-grants.service.gov.uk)

steve@bicknells.net

VAT Construction Reverse Charge – what does the Subcontractor Invoice need to look like?

laughing male constructor showing thumb up at working desk

For VAT reverse charge to apply the subcontractor must be able to answer these questions

  1. Is the work being done a construction activity (CIS340)
  2. Are both the Subcontractor and Contractor registered for VAT (and the VAT rate isn’t Zero) and CIS
  3. Does the contractor have an onward supply for Construction Services (in other words they aren’t the end user or an intermediary)

Assuming the answer to all 3 questions is YES then VAT reverse charge will apply and the subcontractors invoice need to look like this one.

Under the VAT Regulations 1995 invoices for domestic reverse charge supplies, when the customer is liable for the VAT, must include the reference ‘reverse charge’. The following examples fulfill the legal requirement:

•Reverse charge: VAT Act 1994 Section 55A applies

•Reverse charge: S55A VATA 94 applies

•Reverse charge: Customer to pay the VAT to HMRC  

The Subcontractors VAT return will look this.

All the major software providers have this covered for you, for example on Sage Accounting you just need to tick a box on Customers Account Settings.

steve@bicknells.net

How do you reclaim CIS deductions?

two man holding white paper

If you don’t have Gross CIS status you may have Construction Industry Scheme (CIS) deductions to reclaim and you will be probably be trying to reclaim now as we have concluded a tax year (5th April and submitted returns due on the 19th April).

Sole traders and partners

At the end of the tax year, send in your Self Assessment tax return as usual. You should record:

  • the full amounts on your invoices as income
  • any deductions contractors have made in the ‘CIS deductions’ field

HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) will work out your tax and National Insurance bill and take off any deductions made by contractors.

Limited companies

The process for companies is different, companies may well have offset Subcontractors deductions and payroll against deductions made by their clients using CIS132 How to offset Construction Industry Scheme deductions – CIS Offsetting (CIS340 4.13) – Steve J Bicknell Tel 01202 025252

So the first step to work out the net amount to reclaim and check it to the HMRC Government Gateway.

You can choose to:

  1. Form R38 to claim the Refund – Claim an Income Tax refund – GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)
  2. Claim online via your government gateway (agents will use their Agent Services Account) – Claim a refund of Construction Industry Scheme deductions if you’re a limited company or an agent – GOV.UK (www.gov.uk)
  3. Claim by Post

Claim via the Government Gateway

When you click this option ad log in you will get an access code xxx-xxx-xxx, keep a not of this code, the next screen asks you to enter it.

The you can choose

  • New Claim
  • Amendment

I think the amendment option is very helpful in case you make a mistake (shame we don’t get this for other taxes like VAT or PAYE)

Then the questions are

  • Name
  • Agent details and address (if its being claimed by an accountant)
  • Business details
    • Name
    • UTR
    • PAYE reference
    • Tel No
    • Business Address
  • Tax Year for the claim ie 6th April 2021 to 5th April 2022
  • Estimated overpayment (note the word estimated) this the net amount from the CIS132
  • Do you want to offset against other taxes Yes/No
  • Would you like a Cheque or Bank Transfer
  • Bank details for bank transfer
  • E Mail for confirmation

Then you will get a confirmation via E Mail ‘Claim repayment of deductions from your Construction Industry Scheme payments’ it will have another reference xxx-xxxx-xxx

You’ll normally receive a response within 25 days.

Claim by Post

Write to us and make sure that you include:

  • your full company name
  • your PAYE reference numbers
  • the reasons for the overpayment
  • a completed R38 form if you want your refund to be paid to an agent or other representative

If you want us to pay the refund into a bank account, you’ll need to provide the:

  • bank account number
  • sort code
  • account holder’s name

If you want us to deduct your repayment from other amounts you owe for:

  • Corporation Tax — include your Corporation Tax unique tax reference and either the end date of your accounting period or accounting period number
  • VAT — your registration number and the VAT Return period
  • other liabilities — include type of charge, year or period it refers to and any reference numbers you have

You do not have to send any supporting information with your claim, but we may request further details if your claim does not match their records.

Mark your claim ‘CIS’ and send it to:

National Insurance Contributions and Employer Office
HM Revenue and Customs
BX9 1BX
United Kingdom

steve@bicknells.net

What if you move a Property from Fixed Asset Investment to Trading Stock or Vice Versa? Appropriations and Reclassifaction

man in black long sleeves holding the signage while looking at the camera

The rules are in

CG67900 – Capital Gains Manual: Businesses: Appropriations to and from stock in trade

Appropriation treated as a disposal – TCGA92/S161 (1)

Where an asset (which was acquired by a person otherwise than as trading stock) is later appropriated for use as stock in that person’s trade, the transfer is dealt with for trading profits as if there were a sale and purchase at market value, see BIM33630. For capital gains purposes, TCGA92/S161 (1) deems the asset to have been sold for its open market value at the date of transfer.

Election to defer CG charge – TCGA92/S161 (3)

Collection difficulties might arise because tax on chargeable gains may become due and payable before there has been a factual disposal of the asset. To relieve this problem, the trader may make an election under TCGA92/S161 (3). If an election is made, there will be no chargeable gain on the appropriation of the asset to trading stock. Instead, in the computation of trading profits, the market value of the asset will be reduced by the amount of the chargeable gain. The effect of an election is that the trading profits or losses will include the whole of the income profit and the capital gain accruing on the asset over the whole period of ownership.

So what happens if you have a develop a property and then decide to keep it as an investment rather than sell it?

This known as reclassification and there would be an immediate deemed disposal under ITTOIA 2005 s 172B and CTA 2009 s 157 as a result a taxable trading profit would calculated based on the market value. 

The tax would be payable even though the property had not been sold and a profit had not been realised. No elections are available.

steve@bicknells.net

Why Builders and Contractors need to do Cost Value Reconciliation?

Cost Value Reconciliation and Cost Value Comparisons are used on construction projects, they are essential if you want to keep project on budget and report costs and revenue correctly.

The CVR not only looks at costs to date and sales revenue to date but also brings in committed costs, forecasts, contingencies, scope changes, stage of completion and forecasts.

There are two types of Revenue Valuation, Internal (for use with the CVR) and External (application for payment), what gets certified with the client is unlikely to be the true internal value. There may also be items disputed with the client.

The CVR then results in adjustments to both Revenue and Costs to give a true reflection of Profitability.

Costs should not be under estimated and Revenue should not be over estimated within the CVR.

The CVR is great tool to highlight spend issues early on and take action with the client to keep within budget.

Here is an example CVR from the Template Store Cost report template (online-templatestore.com)

The case of Mark Smith v HMRC [2012] TC02321

The appellant in this case was trading as a builder who provided ground works for construction companies. He had an in house surveyor who produced his applications for payment, the clients surveyor certified the valuation within 3 weeks and the accountant recognised the value when certified. The contracts were fixed price and lasted up to 12 months, The business started as a Sole Trader and was subsequently incorporated.

HMRC opened an enquiry in 2001/2002.

The central issue before the tribunal related to the appellant’s computation of profits. It was admitted that his accounts understated the profits gained in a particular tax year. However, it was his contention that this was a “one-off”.

The tribunal held that HMRC’s assessments were in fact justified.

The reason why HMRC were successful was that in the case of Mark Smith he based his income on certified revenue, this meant that the profit was understated, within Construction “UK GAAP” requires revenue to be reported on application based on the CVR matching approach.

The details of the additional profits and tax for each year are as follows:

(1)2000/01: additional profits of £43,189 giving rise to tax of £17,275.60

(2)2001/02: additional profits of £65,205 giving rise to tax of £24,972.02

(3)2002/03: additional profits of £73,889 giving rise to tax of £27,737.86

(4)2003/04:additional profits of £70,023 giving rise to tax of £27,503.41

(5)2004/05: additional profits of £70,000 giving rise to tax of 27,704.18

(6)2005/06: additional profits of £65,240 giving rise to tax of £26,735.44

(7)2006/07: additional profits of £45,541 giving rise to tax of £18,671.81

Further guidance is in UITF40 which came in 2005 and basically stated revenue should be reported in line with work completed by the seller.

Under the principle of matching costs and revenue should be aligned.

steve@bicknells.net

What is the optimum pay for 2022/23 – examples

serious ethic businessman working on laptop

Let’s focus on Directors owning their own companies.

A quick summary

  • Primary NI threshold is changing on 6th July 2022
    • Weekly – from £190 to £242
    • Monthly – from 823 to £1048
    • Annually – from £9880 to £12570 (which is also the income tax threshold)

That basically means an Annual amount of £11908 (3 months at £9880 and 9 months at £12570), £11908 is £992.33 per month (£12570 is £1047.50 per month).

So £992.33 will be below the Employee NI threshold.

However, the Employer NI threshold will be £9100 (£758.33 per month) and from that level Employers NI will be charged at 15.05% unless you have additional employees and are eligible for the Employment Allowance of £5000 (previously £4000).

Dividend Tax rates for 2022/23

  • Allowance £2000
  • Lower Rate 8.75%
  • Higher Rate 33.75%
  • Additional Rate 39.35%

National Insurance Rates for 2022/23

  • Class 1 to the Upper Earnings Level 13.25%, then 3.25%
  • Employer NI Rate 15.05%
  • Employment Allowance £5000

Here some examples

Example 1

  • Salary £12570
  • Dividends £2000 (dividend allowance)
  • Interest from company £1000 (savings allowance)
  • Total £15570

You will pay Class 1 Employee NI £87.72 (13.25% of (£12570 – £11908) [£662]) and your company will pay £522.24 (15.05% of (£12570 – £9100) [£3470])

Total NI Paid £609.96

The company will have saved 19% (at the lower rate) of (£12570 + £522.24 + £1000) x 19% = £2677.53 as these costs will be offset against profit

In order to get a dividend of £2000 the company will have been taxed £469.14 (19% of the gross amount)

Example 2

  • Salary £11908
  • Interest £1000
  • Dividends £37000

Employers NI will be £422.60

Dividend Tax will be £35000 – (£12570 – £11908) x 8.75% = £3004.58

In order to pay £37000 in dividends the company will need a profit of £45679 and will have paid 19% (assuming lower rate) which is £8679 corporation tax

Summary

In order to qualify for benefits including the state pension you have to earn above the Class 1 NI threshold

So it seems logical to opt for a Salary of £12570 (£1047.50 per month)

Above this level income tax starts at 20% and NI is 13.25% for the employee and 15.05% for the employer, overall thats 48.3% tax and NI (but the employer may be entitled to the employment allowance offsetting the employers NI and gross pay and employers NI are deductible against corporation tax)

If you have lent money to your company its worth paying some interest (at a commercial rate) as that is tax deductible for the company (saving 19% CT) and there is a savings allowance and in addition interest is not subject to NI, income tax starts at 20%

Dividends are better than salary because there is a £2000 allowance and then tax starts at 8.75%, but remember the company will have paid 19% CT on profits, so overall at lower rates of tax that 27.75% tax but dividends can only be paid if you make a profit or have profit reserves in the balance sheet.

If you are a client and want to try a specific combination perhaps adding other sources of income, let us know.

steve@bicknells.net