Should my Assets be Revalued – How are assets revalued? (IAS16) Reply

Most assets decrease in value over time with usage and should be depreciated over their useful economic life. However, some assets increase in value for example Land & Buildings and some Metal based assets.

Under the revaluation model, revaluations should be carried out regularly, so that the carrying amount of an asset does not differ materially from its fair value at the balance sheet date. [IAS 16.31]

If an item is revalued, the entire class of assets to which that asset belongs should be revalued. [IAS 16.36]

Revalued assets are depreciated in the same way as under the cost model.

If property, plant, and equipment is stated at revalued amounts, certain additional disclosures are required: [IAS 16.77]

  • the effective date of the revaluation
  • whether an independent valuer was involved
  • the methods and significant assumptions used in estimating fair values
  • the extent to which fair values were determined directly by reference to observable prices in an active market or recent market transactions on arm’s length terms or were estimated using other valuation techniques

Revaluing Assets will not create a tax charge because:

1. If the asset value increases, the revaluation creates a balance sheet revaluation reserve – Debit Assets, Credit the Revaluation Reserve – in does not create a profit, it increases the Net Worth of the business

2. Revaluing an Asset does not affect Capital Allowances these are based on the Cost of the Asset

3. Revaluing an Asset will not generate a Deferred Tax Charge because although it will affect depreciation, it should be excluded from the Deferred Tax computation as it is excluded from Capital Allowances (IAS 12) – Revaluing the asset increases its carrying value without altering its tax base (since revaluations have no immediate tax consequences)

4. Revaluing an Asset does not create a Capital Gain, Capital Gains will only crystalise if the asset is sold

steve@bicknells.net

Capital Investment Appraisal, Tax and Depreciation – The Basics 23

How can you decide whether to buy a fixed asset or to rent it? How do you evaluate and compare capital expenditure requests?

There are 4 key techniques used:

1. Pay Back Period – how many years does it take to get back your initial investment in profits – for normal investments anything less than 3 years is considered good

2. Average Rate of Return (ARR) – this method of appraisal takes the average of the profits made over say a 3 year period (or the life of an asset) and shows the result as a % of the initial investment

3. Net Present Value/Discounted Cash Flow – this method of appraisal takes into account the time value of returns, its often considered the best and most precise way to assess returns, to calculate the Net Present Value you create a cash flow table year 0, shows the investment as a cost, then the net profits are shown in the subsequent years and a factor is applied to remove the effect of inflation, the higher the NPV the better the investment

4. Internal Rate of Return – this is also described as the effective interest rate, to calculate this we increase the Discount Rate in the DCF (3 above) until the NPV equals zero and that produces the return rate

Many businesses will seek to match the funding of the asset to its useful economic life through either a loan or lease, as the life of the asset will normally exceed the pay back period, this should lead to increased profits compared to renting the asset.

Assets are depreciated in the business accounts

Depreciation means the cost of the asset is spread, so it is written off against the profits of several years rather than just the year of purchase. Depreciation is not allowable for tax. Instead you may be able to claim the cost of some assets against taxable income as capital allowances.

The most common methods of Depreciation are Straight Line (depreciation is the same amount in each year) and Reducing Balance (the amount of depreciation decreases each year and is a percentage of the net book balance).

From April 2012 the rates of capital allowances will be reduced from (a) 20% to 18% and from on the Main Rate Pool (b) 10% to 8% for  ‘special rate’ expenditure respectively. At the same time the maximum amount of the Annual Investment Allowances (AIA) will be reduced to £25,000 a year (currently £100,000). So you might want to consider buying assets prior to April 2012 to take advantage of the current rates.

http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/budget2010/bn04.pdf

There will be a timing difference between Depreciation and Capital Allowances and the Tax on the difference in rates is calculated and shown in the accounts as a Provision for Deferred Tax.

steve@bicknells.net